However, Snowden and Boone (2007) cautioned that “best practice, by definition is past practice” (p. 71). For example, if research has shown that, under prescribed conditions, the selection of a specific nursing intervention is highly likely to produce a certain outcome, then the nurse in that situation faces a condition of relative certainty. A typical example is favoring new technology over less glamorous alternatives. DEFINITIONS It is important that managers objectively examine project planning assumptions in the decision-making process to ensure accurate projections. In the early 1900s, Dewey equated critical thinking with reflective thought (The Critical Thinking Community, 2008). Only gold members can continue reading. Nurses and nurse managers are challenged to move from step-by-step problem-solving techniques to incorporating creative thinking, which involves considering the context when meeting current and future challenges in health care delivery (Chambers, 2009; Rubenfeld & Scheffer, 2006). Nurse managers use decision making in managing resources and the environment of care delivery. Various decision-making models and strategies exist. Betsy Frank Just as intuition is part of expert clinical practice (Benner, 1984), intuition plays an important role in developing managerial and leadership expertise (Shirey, 2007). Teaching clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students: Design, development, and usability evaluation of a serious game Int J Med Inform. While taking measures to control the spread of infection, another leadership action was foreseen where he instructed the guidelines to staff members. In the hour of emergency, the LPNs must deliver quick response with ultimate decision making skill. Therefore use of best practices needs to be examined carefully in order to use them appropriately. A decision that leads to a desired outcome on one patient care unit may lead to undesirable outcomes on another unit because the patient care environment and personnel are different. No matter what questions are asked, critical thinkers need to know the “why” of the thinking, the mode of reasoning (inductive or deductive), what the source and accuracy of the information is, what the underlying assumptions and concepts are, and what might be the outcome of the thinking (The Critical Thinking Community, 2008). decision making skills and clinical judgment. Nursing: Decision-Making Skills for Practice is an essential guide for student nurses that prepares them to make effective decisions on the ward and in the community. Whether nurse managers are the sole decision makers or facilitate group decision making, all the factors that influence the problem-solving process also impact how decisions are made: who owns the problem that will result in a decision, what is the context of the decision to be made, and what lenses or perspectives influence the decision to be made? FIGURE 4-2 Decision-making maze. The probability that an autocratic decision will be accepted, 6. Nursing practice demands that practitioners display sound judgement and decision-making skills as critical thinking and clinical decision making is an essential component of nursing … In fact, the nurse manager’s expertise in critical thinking and shared decision making are essential for creating healthy work environments where quality and effective care can be delivered (Kramer et al., 2010; Zori et al., 2010). Other thinkers, such as Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, emphasized the importance of systematic critical thinking and the need for a systematic disciplining of the mind to guide it in clarity and precision of thinking. Unfortunately we all have to make decisions all the time, ranging from trivial issues like what to have for lunch, right up to life … Each decision may have costs and benefits. Critical thinkers have been distinguished from traditional thinkers in nursing. One of the core competencies for all health professionals is working in interprofessional teams (, Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel, 2011, Desired decisions can be categorized into two end points: minimal and optimal. The desired outcome may vary, according to Guo (2008), from an ideal or short-term resolution to covering up a situation. The marketing staff may interpret problems as military battles that need to be won. Data-driven decision making is important (Dexter et al., 2011; Lamont, 2010; Mick, 2011). Both the American Nurses Association’s (2009) and American Association of Nurse Executives’ (2005) standards for practice for nurse administrators and executives support the fact that in a fast-paced health care delivery environment, staff nurses, leaders, and managers must be able to analyze and synthesize a large array of information, use critical thinking and decision making skills to deliver effective day to day patient care, and solve complex problems that occur in complex health care delivery systems (see Figure 4-1). Staff nurses and managers must use critical thinking skills in order to determine the appropriateness of implementing recommended practice protocols. nursing practice . Emphasizing the value of expert experience and holistic judgment ability, Benner (2003) cautioned that clinical judgments must not rely too heavily on technology and that the economic incentives to use technology must not come at the expense of human critical thinking and reasoning in individual cases. An optimizing decision includes comparing all possible solutions with desired objectives and then selecting the optimal solution that best meets objectives (Choo, 2006; Guo, 2008). Therefore using interprofessional teams for problem solving and decision making can be assumed to be more effective than working in disciplinary silos. This is called aversion bias (Kahneman et al., 2011). Critical thinking and decision-making competences include analytical skills as well as intuition. However, if a unit is chronically short-staffed, a decision regarding long-term solutions will have to be made. Decision making is the process of making choices that will provide maximum benefit (Drummond, 2001). A purposeful sample of six participants evaluated the SG prototype in a usability laboratory. If the new equipment provides a higher level of quality at a lower cost, the sunk cost of the existing equipment is irrelevant to the decision-making process. Decision making may also be the result of opportunities, challenges, or more long-term leadership initiatives as opposed to being triggered by an immediate problem. Related It is reasonable to assume that the knowledge gained from a manager’s failed projects would be applied to future decisions. in the decision-making process: (1) D = define the problem, (2) E = establish the criteria, (3) C = consider all the alternatives, (4) I = identify the best alternative, (5) D = develop and implement a plan of action, and (6) E = evaluate and monitor the solution and feedback when necessary. Gather information about the situation. Critical thinkers go beyond the step-by-step processes outlined in the nursing process and traditional problem solving. Flaws in thinking can create hidden traps in decision making. Decision making can also be defined as a behavior exhibited in selecting and implementing a course of action from alternative courses of action for dealing with a situation or problem. A minimal decision results in an outcome that is sufficient, satisfies basic requirements, and minimally meets desired objectives. Nurses have probably always known that their decisions have important implications for patient outcomes. Nurse leaders are coming to understand that innovation and new technology are the driving forces behind the discovery of new knowledge and improvements in patient care. Personal decisions range from multiple small daily choices to time management and career or life choices. Nursing requires critical thinking skills and immediate decision making skills based on the situation. Facione also pointed out that critical thinking is not only a skill but also a disposition that is grounded in a strong ethical component. Nursing: Decision-Making Skills for Practice is an evidence-based guide for student nurses that prepares them to make effective decisions on the ward and in the community. As implied by the word frame, individuals may perceive problems only within the boundaries of their own frame. This is called aversion bias (Kahneman et al., 2011). Decision-making A free flow of ideas is essential to problem-solving and decision- making because it helps prevent preconceived ideas from controlling the process. In addition to having preceptors and others ask questions of new nurses, nurse managers and leaders can use other strategies to enhance critical thinking in nursing staff. When looking at outcomes, one critical aspect of decision making is to determine the desired outcome. Staff nurses who are not engaged in shared decision making may experience less job satisfaction and subsequently may leave an organization, leading to loss of expertise in patient care (Gromley, 2011). Background: Serious games (SGs) are a type of simulation technology that may provide nursing students with the opportunity to practice their clinical reasoning and decision-making skills in a safe and … Personal decisions range from multiple small daily choices to time management and career or life choices. Using these skills, nurses in direct patient care and leaders and managers can reflect analytically, reconceptualize events, and avoid the tendency to make decisions and problem solve hastily or on the basis of inadequate information. Decision making, like traditional problem solving, has been traditionally thought of as a process with identifiable steps yet influenced by the context and by whether there is an intuitive grasp of the situation. Nurses must have excellent communication skills because so much of what they do involves transmitting information, from instructing and educating patients to briefing doctors and other nurses on changes in a patient’s status. Whether right or wrong, humans tend to take credit for successful projects and find ways to blame external factors on failed ones. Although decision-making is more than a step-by-step process as noted by Effken and colleagues (2010), awareness of the components, process, and strategies of decision making contributes to effectiveness in nursing leadership and management decision making. Data were analyzed with descri… Still, the decision maker needs to focus on techniques that will enhance effectiveness in decision-making situations. No matter who is involved in the decision-making process, the basic steps to arrive at a decision to resolve problems remain the same. Studies even cited that graduates are incapable to display seemly clinical decision-making skills in clinical areas . Clinical decision making in nursing involves applying critical thinking skills to select the best available evidence based option to control risks and address patients’ needs in the provision of high quality care that nurses … Nurses in clinical practice continually make judgments and decisions based on the assessment and diagnosis of client needs and practice problems or situations. Learning and understanding which analogies and perspectives offer the best view of a problem or issue are vital to effective decision making. However, he further asserted that as information flow became more complex and faster-paced, a new decision-making model based on the use of partial information that has not been fully analyzed had begun to evolve. A minimal decision results in an outcome that is sufficient, satisfies basic requirements, and minimally meets desired objectives. You may also needQuality and SafetyMarketingProfessional Practice ModelsPower and ConflictMeasuring and Managing OutcomesOrganizational StructureStrategic ManagementStaffing and Scheduling The roots of the concept of critical thinking can be traced to Socrates, who developed a method of questioning as a way of thinking more clearly and with greater logical consistency. Whether there is sufficient information/expertise He called this model “humble decision making.”. Unfortunately, this form of overconfidence often results in overly optimistic projections in project planning. Simulations also promote critical thinking or “thinking like a nurse” (Tanner, 2006). Limitations of time, money, or people may prevent the decision maker from selecting the more deliberative and slower process of optimizing. Tanner (2000) noted that critical thinking is much more than just the five steps of the nursing process. Desired decisions can be categorized into two end points: minimal and optimal. This may result in becoming trapped by an escalation of commitment. A typical example is favoring new technology over less glamorous alternatives. Nurses and nurse managers are challenged to move from step-by-step problem-solving techniques to incorporating creative thinking, which involves considering the context when meeting current and future challenges in health care delivery (Chambers, 2009; Rubenfeld & Scheffer, 2006). What Is Information Literacy? For example, if the computer system in the emergency room cannot “talk” to the system in the operating room, then errors in care management, such as giving cephalexin to patient who has an allergy can occur. DECISION OUTCOMES Within a climate of uncertainty and complexity, nurse managers and leaders must also understand that all decision making involves high-stakes risk taking (Clancy & Delaney, 2005; Keynes, 2008). systematic critical thinking and the need for a systematic disciplining of the mind to guide it in clarity and precision of thinking. Limited time was a primary reason for the “separation” of day to day decision making from information seeking and … Often, decisions can originate within the confines of the shared governance system that may be in place within an organization (Dunbar et al., 2007). Nurse managers’ critical thinking abilities promotes a positive practice environment which can lead to better patient outcomes (Zori, Nosek, & Musil, 2010). He demonstrated that people often cannot rationally justify confident claims to knowledge. It is what leaders and managers are expected to do (Keynes, 2008). Estimating and forecasting traps: People make estimates or forecasts about uncertain events, but their minds are not calibrated for making estimates in the face of uncertainty. Many new nurses, in particular, need to further develop their critical thinking skills (Fero et al., 2008; Forneris & Peden-McAlpine, 2009). Nurses who are critical thinkers also have a keen awareness of their surroundings (Fioratou et al., 2011). Yet staff nurses and nurse managers and leaders must make decisions in uncertain and complex environments (Clancy & Delaney, 2005). • Given the information, what conclusions are justified? Therefore it is important to ask deep questions and probe into thinking sequences, seek evidence, closely examine reasoning and assumptions, analyze basic concepts, and trace out implications. 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